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Real men eat meat - or do they? - Health | NBC News
View all. Bing Site Web Enter search term: Search. Woman shows how to use a 2p COIN to remove limescale from taps in seconds - and there's no pricey products Shoppers reveal the discontinued products they wish would make a comeback - including Heinz Baked Bean Pizza The future faces of royalty: Fascinating computer-aged portraits show how the youngest royals could look in Meghan Markle is 'aware' she's being 'pitted against' future queen Kate Middleton and finds the situation Mother is shocked after her tyres are slashed by eco-warriors who left a note sarcastically thanking her for Escape to the Chateau's Angel throws a 50th wedding anniversary party for her parents - but viewers are left HL designed and conducted the study and contributed to analysis.
DS contributed to design of the study, assisted in data collected, and conducted the analysis. The authors contributed equally to the written manuscript. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Front Psychol v. Front Psychol. Published online Apr Hamish J. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Edited by: X.
This article was submitted to Evolutionary Psychology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychology. Received Sep 1; Accepted Apr 3. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.
No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Modern attitudes to meat in both men and women reflect a strong meat-masculinity association. Keywords: meat, hunting, implicit attitudes, visual search, masculinity. Introduction Across pre-agricultural hunter-gatherer societies Cordain et al.
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Study 1 An Implicit Association Test IAT was used to measure strength of associations between meat and health operationalized using concepts associated with power, strength and vigor in men and women. Method Participants Participants were Australian primarily undergraduate students who participated for course credit. Apparatus and Stimuli The experiment was conducted online, and presented using Inquisit software v3. Table 1 IAT attributes stimuli. Open in a separate window. Procedure Participants completed the two IAT tasks healthy-unhealthy and delicious-disgusting in random order, followed by a series of questions relating to mood, health and diet.
Explicit Ratings of Healthiness and Deliciousness of Meat Independent-samples t -tests revealed that men explicitly ranked meat as more delicious than did women [ t Food Consumption The food consumption reported across both days was scored, such that the scores reflected the relative amount of the diet made up of: lean meats, fatty meats, carbohydrate and vegetables. Study 2 We have already discussed the greater physiological benefits to men, relative women, of eating meat, and there may also be specific physiological benefits to women of eating some non-meat foods.
Method Participants Of the 83 females and 44 males that completed the task, data from 8 females and 1 male were not included in the analysis of Study 2 as they returned an accuracy score of zero in at least one condition of the visual search task. Stimuli The visual search task contained four conditions defined by the type of food being searched for: fatty meats, lean meats, vegetables and high carbohydrate foods which included rice, pastas, potatoes and breads. Procedure The visual search task comprised four blocks of 18 trials.
Results Effects of Sex and Hunger Levels We conducted a mixed-effects MANOVA on mean reaction times and caution scores when locating the meat and non-meat targets, with target-type 2 levels: meat and non-meat as a within-subjects variable and sex and hunger level as between-subjects variables with hunger level defined as described for Study 1. Discussion The sex-by-food type interaction, wherein men responded more quickly to meat than non-meat images, and women responded more cautiously to non-meat than to meat images, suggests that men implicitly evaluated the meat images as more immediately relevant than the non-meat images, and that women placed a higher cost on missing the non-meat, than the meat, images.
Summary and Conclusion In the present study we observed a series of sex differences in implicit responses to meat and non-meat foods. Author Contributions HL designed and conducted the study and contributed to analysis. Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. References Adams C. Energetics and the evolution of the genus Homo.
Arnold Schwarzenegger Terminates Idea That ‘Real Men’ Eat Meat: ‘It’s Marketing’
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